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What is a chromosome and where is it located and what does it do? A general overview for neophytes

A chromosome is one of the components of the cell inside the nucleus which codes for proteins and controls over all phenotypic traits of the organism. In Genetics there are two different terminologies you probably heard being used several times: Genotype and phenotype. In Genotype what is meant to say is that the organism’s genetic configuration; but, phenotype denotes the amino acids produced by the genetic codes of the organism that we can see on the outside. The chromosome is actually a wrapped and compacted strip of an important element called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). In humans we have 23 haploid and 46 diploid chromosomes. There are 22 autosomal chromosomes in a haploid cell starting from the first chromosomes on the ideogram to the 22nd and the last 23rd is called sex chromosome because, it determines the sex of the organism. Male is XY and female is XX.

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The DNA which you can think of as unraveled chromosome is a ladder type structure made from nucleotides, phosphates and sugars; these components organize together to form the DNA molecule. Now, let us see important terms that will help you make sense of the overall field of molecular biology.

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Important terms to Remember in molecular biology

Nucleotide: a molecule composed of Pentose sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

Base: any one of the organic molecules adenine, thymine or uracil in RNA, guanine, and cytosine.

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Gene: a specific genetic code of an organism. Just like a computer has a one and zero code; the DNA also has its own code A-T and G-C. These nucleotides adenine and thymine as well as Guanine and cytosine ALWAYS go together.

Genome: a complete genetic material of an organism.

Amino acid: The elementary component of a protein that makes up our body like skin, hair, and other organs.

Helicase: an important enzyme that unwinds the Double helix or double stranded DNA preparing it for transcription into messenger RNA.

Primase: also another important enzyme that provides a short complementary RNA to the DNA template strand so that it can start transcription process.

DNA polymerase III: An enzyme which adds complementary nucleotides from the surrounding to the back bone on the DNA template in the transcription process creating the Okazaki fragments.

RNA: a different form of DNA material with only a single strand which has Uracil in place of thymine and has and extra oxygen at its sugar back bone unlike DNA. Types of RNA include messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA.

Transcription: The process of the conversion of genetic data that we talked about above in chromosomes from template DNA into messenger RNA. It is performed in three steps: initiation elongation and termination.

Allele:  A variation in DNA sequence in a locus on the chromosome. Alleles can be identical/ homozygous or different/ heterozygous and if only one allele is present it is called hemizygous and hemizygousity determines maleness or femaleness.

Kinetochores: Is the overall attachment point of the sister chromatids, by sister chromatids I mean for example on the first chromosome you can see two separate treads labeled as 1; these are sister chromatids; but, the constriction in the chromosome in very center―where the attachment occurs, is called centromere.

Metacentric: The centromere of a chromosome is located in the middle of the chromosome.

Telocentric: The centromere is located at the end of chromosome.

Acrocentric: The centromere is at very end of the chromosome.

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Locus: Simply means a position on the chromosome where genes are found.

Gene expression: refers to the process of transcription of DNA into messenger RNA, then translation of this code to amino acid sequence or proteins.

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Once, you understand these terms as a beginner in cellular biology and genetics then you can move on to advanced courses and topics like chromosomal abnormality, mutations, interspecies genetics study or what is called evolutionary genetics and so forth; but, in order to accomplish this you need to understand the basic concepts and terminologies of overall genetics which is invaluable in the overall understanding of life processes. I did not write to much text because I believed the pictures will explain more than words; so, I have inserted several diagrams and pictures into this article in a hope that the reader will get a complete knowledge of elementary genetics which is really a super interesting and fascinating subject on the natural world. Next time I will write in detail about cellular division mechanisms, reading techniques of stained chromosomes to identify specific genes, chromosomal abnormality and other advanced topics on Genetics. Until then go on and read more about the subject and I guarantee you will not be disappointed. I hope my explanations were clear. Thanks for reading!

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You are a modifed chimpanzee not the center of the universe

The evidence for evolution is so overwhelming; to reject its veracity will be to reject your own sanity.  The fact that fossil, anatomical, genetic evidence pile up against the so called mystical/mythological origin of mankind and render it―nothing but a kind of social order and ideology; which has no business in metaphysics. Totalitarian vagary of mystics in rejecting evolutionary and scientific facts will never do any change to metaphysical facts on the ground. The facts will remain the same. Religion as a manmade system of arrogant fiction has no business sticking its nose in metaphysical inquires and explanations; but it can be used as a system of culture in which a society makes use of it as recreational escape into mythology. The struggle to make man the center of creation in mythology is so erroneous and a misguided manner of thinking.  The question that comes to me—most of the time; when I contemplate about reality is that: what type of force would allow the evolution of sentient beings and abandon them as orphans with cold blood callousness; even worse ―it designs them to feed on one another? Why type of creator should we call this? A sadist, mindless, or blind? It is really mind boggling. Furthermore, why would nature care about another animal out of the thousands and thousands of species that she created over billions of years of evolution? Why would man be ‘unique’? Why should nature care about a monkey’s opinion anyway? Nature does not care about our aspirations, hopes and dreams as well as wish list. Man is like some sort of unwanted fungus which happen to emerge out in a goldilocks zone; on a planet that happen to have surface water by chance; I say by chance because when we look at Venus; our neighbouring planet we do not see surface water or a thriving fauna and flora; which we see on earth to lead us astray into thinking that earth is made for us; but Venus is a hellish planet where Sulphuric acid rains; can you imagine sulphuric acid raining on a planet? If there were creatures on this planet would they assume that the planet is made for them? Would they assume that they are the chosen ones? If you go further back in our solar system we will find moons of planet Saturn like Titan for example where it so cold that methane rains; imagine methane as rain and as a lake? Considering all these facts and observing our surrounding in the solar system as well as our own body from head to toe and we will come to the conclusion that we are just another variety of creation by natural forces.  Evidently, our planet earth is a green hell and a land of cannibalism; where one species is designed to eat the other— that is why there is so much suffering on the planet; if earth was designed for us; if we were the center of creation—it should have been a utopia; but, unfortunately it is not. Anything that crawls, swims, walks, flies wants to eat you. That is the reality; if this so; if a house is designed without considering the occupant; then, we can safely deduce that the house is not made for the man. The most amazing thing that always comes to my mind is that in 3.8 billion years of evolution what nature could come up with is a superstitious, irrational, pugnacious, sloven mutant chimpanzee i.e. human as her Magnus opus or masterpiece; now does this show or indicate to us any purpose in creation? Our evolution has to be some sort of natural mandate or something―due to the laws of nature. Which needed to happen; not so much that it was chosen to happen. Now, let us see our true origin backed up by fossil, anatomical, and genetic evidence.

 

 

When Darwin published his book in 1871 there was no fossil evidence for the descent of man; but despite the condition—Darwin was certain our origin cannot be any different from other animals in nature; the Lucy skeleton for example was discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson more than a century after the publication of the book. Other similar fossils which possess both human and animal features like bipedal locomotion were discovered later on. Especially, Homo naledi which was discovered recently in South Africa is a solid fossil evidence for our true origin; it possess in a striking manner both human and monkey features; it has a head of monkey but a foot of a human; which really scares you at first glance; you practically observe the work of nature and evolution in real time. Which indicates to us that man is just another modified animal who must be grouped with other animals who possess the same homology; he can never be seen as ‘unique’ like Darwin says on the preface of his book The descent of man—“man must be included with other organic beings in any general conclusion respecting his manner of appearance on this earth.”

 

 

In anatomical comparison which is a magnificent way of studying nature and its species; because there is only one tree of life; everything in nature whether plants and animals all branched from the same tree of life; thus, parallelism gives us a vivid and crystal clear idea and comprehension of the origin of species. In The descent of man which I recommend for you to read; the first three chapters are dedicated to homologous and rudimentary structures as well as reproductive similarities between man and other animals.  Your body itself is an evidence for your origin; your skeletal system; early embryonic development is the same with other animals. Bone structures like reduced tail bone or coccyx, your canines that you have like any dog; anatomical similarities that you posses with you cousin chimpanzees like your limbs which  are almost identical; drugs which work on you also work on your cousin apes— all  this points to the deduction that you are just another animal. As Darwin says―“It is notorious that man is constructed on the same general type or model with other mammals. All the bones in his skeleton can be compared with corresponding bones in a monkey, bat, or seal. So it is with his muscles, nerves, blood vessels and internal viscera. The brain, the most important of all the organs, follows the same law, as shown by Huxley and other anatomists. Bischoff, who is a hostile witness, admits that every chief fissure and fold in the brain of man has its analogy in that of the orang; but he adds that at no period of development do their brains perfectly agree; nor could this be expected, for otherwise their mental powers would have been the same.” [1]

 

 

Genetic science is relatively a new science former scientist like Darwin did not have genetic evidence to analyze; they just studied embryology to compare and contrast the similarities and differences between species. And you will be thrilled to know that more that the fossil or anatomical evidence; the genetic data is unequivocally solid; you and I have 46 chromosomes that we inherited form our parents; where each contribute 23 chromosomes; which we call haploids; when they become 46 it  is called diploid cells. Now, chimpanzees have 48 chromosomes amazingly human and chimps had the same amount of chromosomes until 5 million years ago but a mutation made human chromosomes 46 by attaching the second chromosomes together; thus our second chromosome which has 251 Million bases i.e. genetic codes of A-T and G-C; used to be two separate chromosomes in the past. This hiccup in nature gave birth to a mutant chimp called human; who erroneously prides himself or should I say fools himself as the center of creation. Can you imagine a drug resistant mosquito priding itself as ‘unique’ from other mosquitos? We should not be amazed by mutations; they happen all the time in viruses, bacteria, and in humans giving birth to several manifestations of pathology like Ebola, HIV, superbugs, and Patau syndrome as well as the evolution of new creatures that never existed before like Transgender sexuality and so forth―these aberrations in genetics are called by various terms like monosomy, trisomy, inversions, deletions, translocations, and transposition and so on. Thus, the evidence for our origin from some lower form is vivified even more by genetic evidence; which solidifies evolution as a fact without a doubt.

 

 

Thus, finally as we have discussed above in three sections in this essay in a short manner; man could only be a bi-product of evolutionary processes; he can never be unique and the center of the cosmos; at least not with his current intelligence today; what has been said hitherto in this essay of course contradicts the Bible and the Quran; but, honestly speaking who really cares? It has to contradict it anyway because modern day scientists are honest and much more sophisticated than ancient shepherds and mythologists. When a quote starts by saying that the ‘Bible says’ or the ‘Quran says’ it must be translated as ‘a poet says’ or ‘a mythologist says’ this and that. Christianism and Islamism are ideologies concocted as social orders they are not natural studies. We all live inside nature not in the kingdom of Narnia or Alice in wonderland; who cares about poets and mythologists? We are natural organisms; thus, our origin can only be solved by rational naturalists because the origin of man as many wise philosophers and scientists have stated is absolutely natural; but his destiny is uncertain will he perish like his counterparts of other several species in nature like the Mammoth and the Dinosaurs; without any significance or will his intelligence allow him to persist longer and even spread into the multiverse with the assistance of his technology and his machines? This is an open question but what has been settled is his origin and true identity; which is a wise animal that came about by mutation from some lower form.

[1] The Descent of  man; 1871: 10

Pdf  article available

What is the “vital force” which created nature and moves reality? What keeps the universe going? What keeps us going? An insight into realistic reductionism; energy as the theory of everything

 

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Dr.More explains the processes of Cyronics technology.

Scientific support for Cyronics technology

Abstract

Very low temperatures create conditions that can preserve tissue for centuries, possibly including the neurological basis of the human mind. Through a process called vitrification, brain tissue can be cooled to cryogenic temperatures without ice formation. Damage associated with this process is theoretically reversible in the same sense that rejuvenation is theoretically possible by specific foreseeable technology. Injury to the brain due to stopped blood flow is now known to result from a complex series of processes that take much longer to run to completion than the 6 min limit of ordinary resuscitation technology. Reperfusion beyond the 6 min limit primarily damages blood vessels rather than brain tissue. Apoptosis of neurons takes many hours. This creates a window of opportunity between legal death and irretrievable loss of life for human and animal subjects for cryopreservation with possibility of future resuscitation. Under ideal conditions, the time interval between onset of clinical death and beginning of cryonics procedures can be reduced to less than 1 min, but much longer delays could also be compatible with ultimate survival. Although the evidence that cryonics may work is indirect, the application of indirect evidence is essential in many areas of science. If complex changes due to aging are reversible at some future date, then similarly complex changes due to stopped blood flow and cryopreservation may also be reversible, with life-saving results for anyone with medical needs that exceed current capabilities.

Read more or download this research paper via this link…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18321197

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Origins ??? How was earth created ?

A discourse on dengue virus.

What is dengue virus ?
Dengue fever virus also called break bone fever virus is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus.Other viruses which share the same genus include Yellow fever virus,west nile virus,japanese encephalitis virus,tick borne encephalitis virus, and others.
The dengue virus genome contains about 11,000 nucleotide bases which form the three different types of proteins which build the virus particle.And other seven proteins make are used for the replication of the virus.
The virus has five strains or stereotypes,the first four are called DENV-1,DENV-2,DENV-3 and DENV-4 and the fifth one.The differences among these strains is ofcourse by their capability to bind with a group of products that have adaptive immunity.[i.e by their antigenicity.]
The first record in history of the disease comes from a Chinese medical encyclopedia from the Jin Dynasty.But the most laudable reports of this epidemic of the disease comes from the 1779 and 1780 across Asia,Africa,and north america.In 1906 the disease was shown to be transmitted via Aedes mosquito. The virus infects 50-528 million people world wide and about 20,000 deaths.It is common in 110 countries.
what is the pathology of the virus ?
Dengue is vector borne virus [i.e mosquito.] Symptoms commence after 3-14 days after infection.High fever,headache,muscle and joint pain (hence termed as breakbone fever),vomiting and a characterstic skin rash.The progression of the disease has a febrile,critical and recovery phases.
The febrile phase includes a high fever over 40′ c with a headache and pain lasting for 2-7 days. As fever resolves the critical phase commences, here there is a leakage of plasma from blood vessels which may result in fluid accumulation in the chest wall and abdominal cavity here decreased fluid in the patients system.The recovery phase happens with the reabsorbtion of the leaked fluid from the systems.Hence,fluid overload may affect the brain and result in decreased consciousness or seizures.Dengue fever affects several bodily systems including the brain,heart and the liver.
The primary transmitters of this virus are Aedes aegypti and other Aedes species.These mosquitoes exist between latitudes of 35′ north and 35′ south on an elevation of 3,300ft.They bite during early morning as well as in the evenings. Similar to malaria humans are primary hosts of the virus when the female mosquito takes a blood meal from a patient in the febrile phase of the disease 2-10 day, it becomes infected and the virus infects the cells lining its gut , then on from the 8th to the 10th days later the salivary gland of the mosquito gets infected.Hence,releasing the virus into another non-infected human via a bite.The virus can also be transmitted via blood transfusions,organ donations,and vertical transmissions.
what is the treatment or prevention ?
As with malaria, and Zika the prevention mechanism is to erradicate stagnant water used by Aedes mosquito to lay its egg.Inaddition,insecticides and biological control can be utilized.Using mosquito repellant,mosquito nets, and fully covering dresses can be used as a personal prevention measure.
When we come to treatment there is no vaccine present currently.But a partially effective vaccine produced by Sanofi called Dengvaxia is 60% effective.Maintaining a proper fluid balance or oral rehydration is important.Paracetamol is used to reduce fever and pain.Blood transfusion maybe initiated in those patients with low heamatocrit.Finally in the recovery period fluid adminstration is discontinued inorder to stop fluid overload in the circulatory system.The fatality rate is 1-5 % and less than one with accurate treatment.Those patients with low blood pressure are the one at high risk for death.That is why hydration is emphasized as discussed above.

 

References:

WHO

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/

CDC

http://www.cdc.gov/dengue/

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_virus

 

A discourse on Zika virus.

what is zika virus ?
The zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from a Rhesus macaque monkey which was placed in a cage in the Zika forest of uganda by the scientists of the Yellow Fever Research Institute. Another isolation was performed from a mosquito A.africanus in 1948. The virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus.This virus is related to dengue,yellow fever,Japanese encephalitis and west nile viruses.
Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a non-segmented single stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.A positive-sense RNA can be directly translated to viral ptoteins.
what is the pathology of the virus ?
Zika is primarily spread through the female Aedes aegypti mosquito which is active in day time.This virus has also been isolated from Aedes africanus, A.apicoargenteus,A.furcifer,A.hensilli,A.luteocephalus and A.vittatus with an extrinsic incubation period in mosquitoes of about 10 days.
Zika has been reported to be transmitted via sexual intercourse.A United states biologist who was bitten while studying mosquitoes in senegal transmitted the virus to his wife via sexual action.May be the well advertised means of the viruses pathology is it’s vertical transmission i.e mother to fetus during pregnancy or birth which is a true matter of fact.Transmisssion via blood transfusion has also been reported.
Zika replicates in the mosqito’s mid gut epithelial cells and then in its salivary gland cells.Even after 5-10 days Zika can be found in the mosquitos saliva.If the mosquito’s saliva alone is inoculated into a human subject,the virus can infect epidermal keratinocytes,skin fibroblasts and langerhans cells.Then it is hypothesised the virus moves on to the lymph nodes and blood stream.
Common symptoms of the infection include mild headaches,maculopapular rash,fever,malaise,conjuctivitus and joint pain.Thus, far Zika fever has been a comparatively mild malady with only one in five persons developing symptoms with no fatalities.The symptoms last for 2-7 days.The virus has been identified to exist in Africa,the americas, Asia and the pacific.
What is the treatment for the virus ?
In this current year of 2016 no vaccine is available, but preventative measures like mosquito nets,repellants, clearing stagnant water can be utilized.The symptoms are mainly managed via rest,paracetamol(acetaminophen),fluids and other nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs can be used if Dengue virus has been ruled out from diagnosis.WHO experts have advised for the development of inactivated vaccines, so that it can be safe to use on pregnant women.
Since january the NIH vaccine research centre,Bharat Biotech International, and other 18 companies and institutions are working on developing a vaccine against zika virus but they have not reached human trials.

References:

WHO

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/

CDC

http://www.cdc.gov/zika/

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zika_virus

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