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The school of CAMIDRCS

(coalition against mysticism in defence of reason commonsense and science)

Month

May 2016

A discourse on dengue virus.

What is dengue virus ?
Dengue fever virus also called break bone fever virus is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus.Other viruses which share the same genus include Yellow fever virus,west nile virus,japanese encephalitis virus,tick borne encephalitis virus, and others.
The dengue virus genome contains about 11,000 nucleotide bases which form the three different types of proteins which build the virus particle.And other seven proteins make are used for the replication of the virus.
The virus has five strains or stereotypes,the first four are called DENV-1,DENV-2,DENV-3 and DENV-4 and the fifth one.The differences among these strains is ofcourse by their capability to bind with a group of products that have adaptive immunity.[i.e by their antigenicity.]
The first record in history of the disease comes from a Chinese medical encyclopedia from the Jin Dynasty.But the most laudable reports of this epidemic of the disease comes from the 1779 and 1780 across Asia,Africa,and north america.In 1906 the disease was shown to be transmitted via Aedes mosquito. The virus infects 50-528 million people world wide and about 20,000 deaths.It is common in 110 countries.
what is the pathology of the virus ?
Dengue is vector borne virus [i.e mosquito.] Symptoms commence after 3-14 days after infection.High fever,headache,muscle and joint pain (hence termed as breakbone fever),vomiting and a characterstic skin rash.The progression of the disease has a febrile,critical and recovery phases.
The febrile phase includes a high fever over 40′ c with a headache and pain lasting for 2-7 days. As fever resolves the critical phase commences, here there is a leakage of plasma from blood vessels which may result in fluid accumulation in the chest wall and abdominal cavity here decreased fluid in the patients system.The recovery phase happens with the reabsorbtion of the leaked fluid from the systems.Hence,fluid overload may affect the brain and result in decreased consciousness or seizures.Dengue fever affects several bodily systems including the brain,heart and the liver.
The primary transmitters of this virus are Aedes aegypti and other Aedes species.These mosquitoes exist between latitudes of 35′ north and 35′ south on an elevation of 3,300ft.They bite during early morning as well as in the evenings. Similar to malaria humans are primary hosts of the virus when the female mosquito takes a blood meal from a patient in the febrile phase of the disease 2-10 day, it becomes infected and the virus infects the cells lining its gut , then on from the 8th to the 10th days later the salivary gland of the mosquito gets infected.Hence,releasing the virus into another non-infected human via a bite.The virus can also be transmitted via blood transfusions,organ donations,and vertical transmissions.
what is the treatment or prevention ?
As with malaria, and Zika the prevention mechanism is to erradicate stagnant water used by Aedes mosquito to lay its egg.Inaddition,insecticides and biological control can be utilized.Using mosquito repellant,mosquito nets, and fully covering dresses can be used as a personal prevention measure.
When we come to treatment there is no vaccine present currently.But a partially effective vaccine produced by Sanofi called Dengvaxia is 60% effective.Maintaining a proper fluid balance or oral rehydration is important.Paracetamol is used to reduce fever and pain.Blood transfusion maybe initiated in those patients with low heamatocrit.Finally in the recovery period fluid adminstration is discontinued inorder to stop fluid overload in the circulatory system.The fatality rate is 1-5 % and less than one with accurate treatment.Those patients with low blood pressure are the one at high risk for death.That is why hydration is emphasized as discussed above.

 

References:

WHO

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/

CDC

http://www.cdc.gov/dengue/

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_virus

 

A discourse on Zika virus.

what is zika virus ?
The zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from a Rhesus macaque monkey which was placed in a cage in the Zika forest of uganda by the scientists of the Yellow Fever Research Institute. Another isolation was performed from a mosquito A.africanus in 1948. The virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus.This virus is related to dengue,yellow fever,Japanese encephalitis and west nile viruses.
Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a non-segmented single stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.A positive-sense RNA can be directly translated to viral ptoteins.
what is the pathology of the virus ?
Zika is primarily spread through the female Aedes aegypti mosquito which is active in day time.This virus has also been isolated from Aedes africanus, A.apicoargenteus,A.furcifer,A.hensilli,A.luteocephalus and A.vittatus with an extrinsic incubation period in mosquitoes of about 10 days.
Zika has been reported to be transmitted via sexual intercourse.A United states biologist who was bitten while studying mosquitoes in senegal transmitted the virus to his wife via sexual action.May be the well advertised means of the viruses pathology is it’s vertical transmission i.e mother to fetus during pregnancy or birth which is a true matter of fact.Transmisssion via blood transfusion has also been reported.
Zika replicates in the mosqito’s mid gut epithelial cells and then in its salivary gland cells.Even after 5-10 days Zika can be found in the mosquitos saliva.If the mosquito’s saliva alone is inoculated into a human subject,the virus can infect epidermal keratinocytes,skin fibroblasts and langerhans cells.Then it is hypothesised the virus moves on to the lymph nodes and blood stream.
Common symptoms of the infection include mild headaches,maculopapular rash,fever,malaise,conjuctivitus and joint pain.Thus, far Zika fever has been a comparatively mild malady with only one in five persons developing symptoms with no fatalities.The symptoms last for 2-7 days.The virus has been identified to exist in Africa,the americas, Asia and the pacific.
What is the treatment for the virus ?
In this current year of 2016 no vaccine is available, but preventative measures like mosquito nets,repellants, clearing stagnant water can be utilized.The symptoms are mainly managed via rest,paracetamol(acetaminophen),fluids and other nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs can be used if Dengue virus has been ruled out from diagnosis.WHO experts have advised for the development of inactivated vaccines, so that it can be safe to use on pregnant women.
Since january the NIH vaccine research centre,Bharat Biotech International, and other 18 companies and institutions are working on developing a vaccine against zika virus but they have not reached human trials.

References:

WHO

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/

CDC

http://www.cdc.gov/zika/

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zika_virus

Reason will conquer the world.

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