Malaria as a malady has an incipience starting from (2700 BCE-340 CE) where the symptoms were discribed in ancient chinese medical writings called Nei Ching (canon of medicine) edited by Emperor HuangTi and also on Sanskrit texts of Susruta.

Meanwhile, in europe malaria became widely recognized in Greece around 4th century BCE which at that time was responsible for many mortality rates.
Typically there are 4 types of malaria parasites namely plasmodium vivax,plasmodium falciparum,plasmodium malariae and plasmodium ovale but recently reports of a resurfacing pathogen from south east asia including areas of Cambodia,China,Indonesia,Laos,Malaysia,Myanmar,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand,and Vietnam that a new Zoonotic plasmodium parasite called plasmodium knowlesi is causing human morbidity.
This parasite has a life cycle of 24 hrs and can give rise to daily fever high dose of parasitemia spikes 9-12 days after initial infection.Plasmodium Knowlesi has not been known to posses hypnozoites or dormant parasities in the liver which causes relapsing malaria eventhough this parasite can cause severe organ failure and death very fast.

Scientifically the parasite is classified as:-

Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate parasite malaria which causes malaria in Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina.It was reported for the first time in 1965 and represents 75% of all malaria cases in south east asia.
The discovery:-
Giuseppe franchiti should have beeen the first man to distinguish P.knowlesi from plasmodium cynomolgi and plasmodium innui which infect Macaca monkeys.But Biraj  mohan das Gupta who was the assistant of Dr.Robert Knowles received an infected Macaca and after progressive research they discribed the pathogen in detail in 1932 and eventually was named after Dr. Robert knowles.

Life cycle

Asexual (human host)

The parasite replicates fast within 24 hours accordingly


sexual cycle (mamalian host)

Gametocyte (micro and macro gamete)—zygote—Ookinete—Oocyst—sporozoites.

N.B:- P.knowlesi has no hypnozoite hence it is non-relapsing.

Transmission route:

Infected monkey to uninfected monkey

Infected monkey to un infected human

Infected human to uninfected  monkey

Infected human to uninfected human.

This infection could happen naturally through  vector route i.e (Anopheles hackeri, A.cracens) or artificially.

Diagnosis:- The erytrocytic stages of P.knowlesi is microscopically indistinguishable from  p.malariae and early satges of p.falciparum.Hence,diagnosis is made my PCR and molecular analysis.

Treatment:-P.knowlesi responds well to chloroquine for 3 days and primaquine for 2 days.Mknowlesi