A chromosome is one of the components of the cell inside the nucleus which codes for proteins and controls over all phenotypic traits of the organism. In Genetics there are two different terminologies you probably heard being used several times: Genotype and phenotype. In Genotype what is meant to say is that the organism’s genetic configuration; but, phenotype denotes the amino acids produced by the genetic codes of the organism that we can see on the outside. The chromosome is actually a wrapped and compacted strip of an important element called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). In humans we have 23 haploid and 46 diploid chromosomes. There are 22 autosomal chromosomes in a haploid cell starting from the first chromosomes on the ideogram to the 22nd and the last 23rd is called sex chromosome because, it determines the sex of the organism. Male is XY and female is XX.
The DNA which you can think of as unraveled chromosome is a ladder type structure made from nucleotides, phosphates and sugars; these components organize together to form the DNA molecule. Now, let us see important terms that will help you make sense of the overall field of molecular biology.
Important terms to Remember in molecular biology
Nucleotide: a molecule composed of Pentose sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
Base: any one of the organic molecules adenine, thymine or uracil in RNA, guanine, and cytosine.
Gene: a specific genetic code of an organism. Just like a computer has a one and zero code; the DNA also has its own code A-T and G-C. These nucleotides adenine and thymine as well as Guanine and cytosine ALWAYS go together.
Genome: a complete genetic material of an organism.
Amino acid: The elementary component of a protein that makes up our body like skin, hair, and other organs.
Helicase: an important enzyme that unwinds the Double helix or double stranded DNA preparing it for transcription into messenger RNA.
Primase: also another important enzyme that provides a short complementary RNA to the DNA template strand so that it can start transcription process.
DNA polymerase III: An enzyme which adds complementary nucleotides from the surrounding to the back bone on the DNA template in the transcription process creating the Okazaki fragments.
RNA: a different form of DNA material with only a single strand which has Uracil in place of thymine and has and extra oxygen at its sugar back bone unlike DNA. Types of RNA include messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA.
Transcription: The process of the conversion of genetic data that we talked about above in chromosomes from template DNA into messenger RNA. It is performed in three steps: initiation elongation and termination.
Allele: A variation in DNA sequence in a locus on the chromosome. Alleles can be identical/ homozygous or different/ heterozygous and if only one allele is present it is called hemizygous and hemizygousity determines maleness or femaleness.
Kinetochores: Is the overall attachment point of the sister chromatids, by sister chromatids I mean for example on the first chromosome you can see two separate treads labeled as 1; these are sister chromatids; but, the constriction in the chromosome in very center―where the attachment occurs, is called centromere.
Metacentric: The centromere of a chromosome is located in the middle of the chromosome.
Telocentric: The centromere is located at the end of chromosome.
Acrocentric: The centromere is at very end of the chromosome.
Locus: Simply means a position on the chromosome where genes are found.
Gene expression: refers to the process of transcription of DNA into messenger RNA, then translation of this code to amino acid sequence or proteins.
Once, you understand these terms as a beginner in cellular biology and genetics then you can move on to advanced courses and topics like chromosomal abnormality, mutations, interspecies genetics study or what is called evolutionary genetics and so forth; but, in order to accomplish this you need to understand the basic concepts and terminologies of overall genetics which is invaluable in the overall understanding of life processes. I did not write to much text because I believed the pictures will explain more than words; so, I have inserted several diagrams and pictures into this article in a hope that the reader will get a complete knowledge of elementary genetics which is really a super interesting and fascinating subject on the natural world. Next time I will write in detail about cellular division mechanisms, reading techniques of stained chromosomes to identify specific genes, chromosomal abnormality and other advanced topics on Genetics. Until then go on and read more about the subject and I guarantee you will not be disappointed. I hope my explanations were clear. Thanks for reading!
The problem has always been with man’s obsession to project humanism into the macrocosm. People always inquire: Is there a god? By god they of course intend to mean determination and control and the answer for it—is a resounding yes! I do not want to be misunderstood as I said on another of my article ―as a man who rejects the existence of determining forces. I believe in the determining nature of the impersonal and demystified forces of nature. When we analyze the question itself: Is there a god? We come across the personalizing term ‘god’. Humans have always been comfortable with their one kind; they give faces, torso and names to even inanimate objects in order to be comfortable with them. When they see lion cubs in the wild they like to give them names; when they buy pets from the store they dress them with human attire and costumes; when they make a cartoon movie about wild animals like —The Lion king or Madagascar; they insert the various personalities found in their own human societies into the these wild animals making them talk, walk, plot, and even talk like humans and ‘god’ as the theory of everything which exists in nature is not different. Rationally it does exist either as a mathematical formula or some sort of natural force; but never as a human being like Jesus, Zeus or Marduk. This is really silly, puerile and naïve.
The divinity in mystical terms or the determining essence in rational terms of nature is 100% certain beyond any doubt. But, I believe nature understands more mathematics than natural human languages, rhapsodies, recitations, wailing, poems, prayers, sacrifices and lamentations that do not mean anything at all and have no results what so ever. That is what has been established through our journey as humans throughout history. So, basically humans are committing three grave errors consecutively in their metaphysics the 1st error is personalization of nature and the 2nd is mystification of nature and 3rd is imposition of claptrap; because an inept system needs to be imposed because it does not convince sage individuals or work at all; that is why mystics chase after everybody despite his freedom of choice and absolute pre-option; because, as idealist; they, believe that there is no truth and whatever people believe will be the truth; they chase after everybody and he has to be convinced by force; whether he likes it or not; which is really ridiculous; they are obsessed in the ways of convincing people and twisting their minds rather than in the ways of proving inextinguishable eternal realistic facts for people.
So, as I said above there are three erroneous steps committed by mystic’s personalization, mystification (mythological engagement) and imposition (force belief on others as a system of hope). In reverse naturalists proceed in the opposite direction by implementing―Impersonalization of natural forces (utilizing the law of identity A is A— and seeing everything for what it is), demystification (mathematical engagement) and presentation (of evidence). We must remember that before this worse version of mysticism called ‘supernaturalism’ came along ; ancient mystics like that of Hesiod where pantheists; the origin of their gods and goddesses was from nature see his ‘chaos theory’ of the genesis of the gods or read the Theogony which is like the Bible of the ancient world. Thus, it will be mandatory for all of us to rectify our engagement with the natural world.
Next time you her a mystic stating whether an atom or a natural force is conscious to do what it does; remember , that he is attempting to personalize natural forces. Natural forces do what they do because they are what they are end of story. They have their own essence according to the third law of thought ―The law of identity; thus, an atom is an atom; a tornado is a tornado and a human is a human; each natural force is unique. Thus, the manner of engagement with all these forces of nature also differs from one force to the other. We shouldn’t be bothered and drive ourselves crazy expecting the consciousness of an atom or how a tornado could operate with all that force without a muscle like a human being. I think this law in logic is going to save us from the error of personification and the cascade that I talked about above which always leads to imposition.
We have lost already several famous scientists and philosophers to the three errors like Socrates, and currently even in the 21st century we have prosecution and even execution of rational people; who refuse to personalize natural forces, to follow the three erroneous steps and become mystics who adore the grave rather than longevity. This error in human thinking has always been a curse in the society; this obsession with personalization has created so many calamities; there is no need to believe in personalized gods as there is no need in believing in true existence of Simba in the Lion king. The forces of nature in conjunction with the law of identity will suffice in becoming the theory of everything. Belief has no benefit to mankind and it has no results on the ground; if belief had any efficacy to it the belief of believers would have turned the planet flat.
When people start to depersonalize the forces of nature and see all of them for exactly what they are then there is no need for the quest of a man on a golden chair in space holding a crook his hand. When people start confusing an atom and a tornado with a human being; then, they are in big trouble and at risk to fall into the trap of the perplexed system of idealism. They will reach to the maddening state where they will say that the material world is the creation of their minds; whatever they believe will be the truth and they will place themselves at the center of the Universe; preparing for extinction. Instead, of seeing every existent natural force outside the observer for exactly for what it is, understanding its nature, how it works and utilizing that knowledge to promote longevity and bliss.
All this mess in human philosophy and action wouldn’t have occurred if people understood and accepted the laws of Logic developed by sapient philosophers for the benefit of humanity. They wouldn’t have digressed into this co called ‘spiritualism’ an empty system of nonsense; which creates more suffering than it aspires to solve. A topsy-turvy system of mysticism created by clueless charlatans throughout history has become a toxic mix by which young people become intoxicated and a tinder in which the infrastructure of human civilization burns to the ground by their activities as can be witnessed today from mystical terrorism all over the world. Thus, to conclude matters I would advise people to follow the righteous path of rational people of impersonalization, demystification and presentation rather than vise-versa to save themselves and others from confusion, hopelessness, disease and death deviating into futile idealism which has no benefit for mankind at all.